Brain Sync – Full Collection (40 Albums).17 __HOT__

Brain Sync – Full Collection (40 Albums).17 __HOT__

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Brain Sync – Full Collection (40 Albums).17

The underlaying mechanisms of interbrain phase synchrony cannot be completely disentangled, and different models are proposed. One view posits the alpha-mu rhythm as a self-organizing synchronization process using a central master oscillator [35]. Another hypothesis suggests the presence of neural oscillators activated in a bottom-up, delta-gamma range (8.10-30 Hz) such that gamma-mediated top-down processes may control phase locking in the alpha-mu range [59]. Our results are consistent with the first hypothesis, though the coregulatory mechanisms remain unresolved. In our study, the imitated motions were initiated by the model at random times within the frame of the action of the imitator. This process resembles self-organization processes based on the phase-locking properties of neural oscillators and their capacity to regulate their activity by an endogenous control of the excitability of the oscillators [35]. In our study, however, the synchronization increases with the phase transition of theta and alpha-mu activities at the onset of action of the imitator. The transition from phase to phase at the onset of action of the imitator suggests an interaction at an extrinsic level (e.g., body posture, joint coordination) rather than at an intrinsic level. This extrinsic mechanism becomes important at the emergence of actions and the introduction of new actions. It depends on the brain’s capacity to adapt to motoric events and the capacity to coordinate via the body [60]. As such, it could be important for understanding the development of multi-agent synchrony during social interaction [61] and might explain our findings of increased synchrony between toddlers during social interaction. Laminar differences are also likely to play a role in our study. The beta band appears to be stronger in laminae V-VI and may thereby reflect more fine-grained response to motor commands [57]. This view is consistent with recent results showing that low frequency cortical rhythms in adult humans and cats are reorganized in the immature cortex during motor learning [62]. Finally, the presence of a central oscillator that is reactive to external and internal signals might partially account for the lack of synchrony between pairs of participants performing in sequence the same task [63]. This idea of a central oscillator as a comparator of specific movement characteristics is reminiscent of the role of cortical networks in action-perception coupling and the automatic transitive activation of a sensorimotor homunculus [64]. Action perception requires a possible mechanism for automatic transitive activation of the perceived action in response to the perception of the motion of an observed action, and this process could be enhanced in subcortical structures such as the cerebellum. The cerebellum was found to be involved in extracting social cues (e.g., gaze direction) by moving the head in the same direction as observed actions [65]. In this sense, our study is consistent with the hypothesis that the cerebellum plays a role in the development of social interaction. The cerebellum is furthermore involved in syntactic and semantic processing [66], [67] and in language comprehension [68].



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