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Homework Help Get help with your.Homework Or Download it by using the download button. This site provides a downloadable version of.The importance of vitamin D metabolism and its role in the maintenance of blood pressure homeostasis is underscored by the discovery that vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and circulating levels of vitamin D are associated with multiple cardiovascular parameters, including hypertension. Furthermore, an acute increase in vitamin D intake has been shown to decrease BP in some adults, particularly in winter. Even though the vascular actions of vitamin D have been extensively studied, the contribution of vitamin D to renal regulation of blood pressure is largely unknown. The objective of this proposal is to investigate the role of the VDR in the control of BP homeostasis and renal regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis in the mouse using the established retinoid responsive renal and systemic circulation model as well as for the first time, using the VDR deficient mouse model. First, we will determine whether the VDR mediates the effects of retinoids on blood pressure and renal function in normotensive as well as salt sensitive hypertensive mice using the established retinoid responsive systemic circulation and renal circulation model. Second, we will determine the role of the VDR in the regulation of blood pressure using the retinoid responsive renal circulation and systemic circulation model in VDR-/- mice. Third, we will determine the role of the VDR in renal control of blood pressure using the established glomerular filtration and receptor equation for the rate of filtration of plasma to glomerular ultrafiltration, volume expansion and angiotensin AT2 receptor stimulation studies with a mutant mouse model of the VDR deficient mouse model. Fourth, we will determine the role of the VDR in the regulation of renal water and sodium excretion in the mutant mouse model of the VDR deficient mouse model. Altogether, these studies will provide invaluable information about the role of the VDR in BP regulation and sodium and water excretion in mice and its relation to human pathophysiology.Willard Wallace Waddel
Willard Wallace Waddel (March 11, 1875 — January 8, 1953) was a businessman and politician in California.
Waddel was born in Sacramento, California. He moved to the Nevada and Arizona Territory, where he operated a hardware store. Waddel moved to Hawaii in 1893 and founded the Hawaiian Hardware Company, of which he was president. He also operated a farm. In
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